CHANDRAYAAN 2: THE MISSION
Chandrayaan-2 lander spacecraft starting its journey for exploring the unexplored surface of the moon. It was initiated for landing on the lunar. It was about to land on the moon to spend a lunar day for exploration. However, mission life didn’t last for long but hope continued with Updation and trials.
THE mission whose planning started a decade before it is on a mission unlike any before. It comprises nearly a decade of scientific research and engineering development programs. The mission is important because it will give ISRO the vital information about the surface of the moon, Its evolution, changes on the surface. This will also explore the discoveries made by Chandrayaan 1 such as the presence of water on the surface of the moon and new rock type with unique chemical composition through the mission ISRO aims to but at last the connection lost just before 2.1 km. The prime minister salutes the scientist working in ISRO.
: SOME BASIC INFORMATION OF MISSION:
Expand India’s footprint in space.
It Inspires the future generation of scientists, engineers, and explorers.
The Surpass international aspiration
Mission involved: Lunar orbiter, Lander, Rover
Origin: ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation)
Made by ISRO, India
Weight per parts
Total weight-3,850 kg(wet)
Total weight-1,308 kg(dry)
Vikram Lander(wet)-1,471 kg
Vikram Lander(dry)-626 kg
8. Power: Orbiter: 1 KW
Vikram Lander: 650 W
Pragyan rover: 50 W
9. Launch Date: 22 July 2019, 2:43 p.m IST.
10. Rocket Name: GSLV Mk III – M1
11. Place of Launch: Satish Dhawan Space Centre Second LaunchPad
12. Orbit insertion: 20 August 2019, 09:02 IST
13. Inclination: 90° polar orbit
14. Landing on the moon date(LANDER): 7 September 2019
The updates of Chandrayaan 2 according to date,
Important Words: landing site, moon lander, Lander Vikram and rover, Vikram and rover Pragyan, Lunar south pole.
SEPTEMBER 10, 2019
Vikram Lander was located by the orbiter of Chandrayaan 2, but no communication was happening. The scientist of ISRO tried to establish communication with the lander.
SEPTEMBER 4, 2019
The second de-orbiting maneuver for Chandrayaan 2 was successfully done on 4th September 2019 at 0342 hrs IST by using an onboard populising system the duration of the maneuver was just 9 seconds.
According to ISRO the orbit of Vikram Lander is 35 km × 101 km. Chandrayaan 2 was orbiting the moon in an orbit of 96 km ×125 km and both the orbiter and lander was healthy and working properly on this date.
With the help of maneuver, the required orbit for the Vikram lander to come on the descent towards the surface of the moon was achieved on this date. The lander was scheduled to be powered descent between 0100 – 0200 hrs IST on September 7, 2019, which was then followed by the touch down of lander between 0130 – 0230 hrs IST.
SEPTEMBER 7, 2019
Chandrayaan-2 mission was a very advanced and a risky mission, It represented a significant technological leap compared to previous mission of ISRO as they were also risk and a chance for failure but this mission was different from others in the sense as it brought together an Orbiter, Lander and Rover to explore the unexplored South of our natural satellite. Since the launching of Chandrayaan-2 on 22 July 2019, not only India and some countries but the whole world was watching the progress of ISRO and the technology of India with great excitement and expectation.
This was a unique mission as it is not focused to study only one side of the moon but all the areas combining the exposure, combining the surface and subsurface of the moon in just a single mission. This was the great mission of all time from ISRO. The orbiter was placed in the intended orbit around the moon to enhance the understanding of the moon’s evolution and mapping the minerals and water molecules in the polar regions of the moon, using its eight state of the art and advance scientific instrument.
The orbiter camera was one of the highest resolution cameras (0.3m) in any lunar mission so far and is designed to provide high-resolution image which will be very immensely useful to the global scientific community who are researching the surface of moon. The aggressive launch and mission management has ensured a long life of almost seven years instead of just one year of life. The Vikram Lander followed the planned descent trajectory from its orbit of 35 km to just below 2 km above the surface of. All the system and sensors of the Lander was functioning nicely until this point and has proved many new technology to scientist, such as thrust propulsion technology which was used in the Lander.
The criteria for success was defined at each and every phase of the mission and on this date, 90- 95% of the mission objective was accomplished and continued to contribute to the lunar science, inspite to the loss of communication with the Lander.
SEPTEMBER – 4, 2019
The second progress of De-orbiting maneuver for the Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft was performed successfully on this date (September 4, 2019) starting at 0342 Hrs IST as planned by ISRO scientist. By using the Onboard propulsion system. The time of the Maneuver was 9 Second.
The orbit of Vikram Lander is 35 km×101 km. Chandrayaan-2 continues to orbit the surface of the moon in an orbit of 96 km × 125 km and both Lander and Orbiter were healthy and whole the mission was running smoothly.
With this Maneuver, the required orbit for the Vikram Lander to come across its descent toward the surface of the moon was achieved. The lander was scheduled to powered descent between 0100 – 0200 hrs IST on September 7, 2019, which was then followed by the touchdown of the lander between 0130 – 0230 hrs IST.
SEPTEMBER 3, 2019
The first De-orbiting maneuver for the Chandrayaan-2 was performed successfully on this date (September 3, 2019) beginning at 0850 hrs IST as planned by ISRO, using the Onboard propulsion system, the duration of the maneuver was made 4 sec.
The orbit of Vikram Lander is 104 km × 128 km. The orbiter of Chandrayaan-2 continues to orbit the moon surface in the existing orbit and both the Lander on this date was found to be healthy and was working properly.
The next de-orbiting was maneuver was scheduled on September 04, 2019 between 0330 – 0430 hrs IST.
SEPTEMBER 2, 2019
Live media coverage was done of the Chandrayaan-2 on Lunar Surface.
The Soft Landing of Chandrayaan-2, the Vikram Lander on the Lunar Surface was scheduled between 1:30 am to 2:30 am at Saturday morning, on September 7, 2019. This was followed by the rover roll out between 5:30 am to 6:30 am. A press meet was held with chairman of ISRO was planned at 8:00 am to 9:00
Based on the interest shown by news media across the country and also the globe. ISRO invites certified news media person to cover the important events live from Satellite control center building, ISRO Telemetry Tracking and Command Network , I cross, I phase, Peenya Industrial Estate, Bangalore – 560058.
At this point the attention of the media was invited on the following key points :
The media person confirmed their participation for the live telecast to the respective press information Bureaus (PIBS) of their respective regions by 2:00 PM by Wednesday, September04, 2019.
Registration of media persons was done at SSC, ISTRAC in the afternoon of September 06, 2019 from 2:00 PM.
For covering the live event at Satellite Control Centre (SCC), ISTRAC.
On this date, Vikram Lander successfully separated from Chandrayaan2 orbiter at 1315hrs IST. The Vikram Lander was located in an orbit of 119km ×127km. The Chandrayaan-2 was continuing to orbit the moon in its existing orbit. The health of the Orbiter and Lander was also monitored from the Mission Operations Complex (MOX) at ISRO telemetry, at tracking and command network (ISTRAC) in Bangalore with the support from Indian Deep Space Network antennas at Byalalu, near Bengaluru. All the system of Chandrayaan-2 Orbiter and Lander was healthy at this stage and date.
The final and fifth Lunar bond orbit maneuver for Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft was successfully performed on this date. Using the onboard propulsion system the duration of maneuver was just 52 seconds. In this orbit was achieved is 119km × 127km.
The next operation was the separation of Vikram Lander from the orbit of Chandrayaan-2. Which was scheduled on 02 September 2019, between 1245-1345hr IST? In this, there were two deorbit maneuvers of Vikram Ladder to prepare for its landing in the south polar region of the moon.
Fourth Lunar bound orbit maneuver for Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft was performed successfully on this day beginning at 1818hr IST as planned by the ISRO scientist. The duration of maneuver 1155 second. The orbit achieved was 124km ×164km.
The parameter of spacecraft was normal. The next Lunar orbit maneuver was scheduled on 1st September 2019 between 1800-190hrs IST.
The Lunar bond orbit maneuver for Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft was performed successfully on this date at 0904 hrs IST by using the system of an onboard propulsion system. the duration of maneuver was 1190 second. The orbit which was achieved was 179km ×1412km. The parameter of the spacecraft was normal. The next Lunar bond orbit maneuver was scheduled at 30 August 2019 between 1800-1900hrs IST.
The Lunar surface imaged by Terrain mapping camera 2 (TMC2) on 23rd of August 2019 at an altitude of 4375 kilomters.
The impact named Jackson, Mitra, Mach, Korolev.
Jackson is an impact crater located in the northern hemisphere of the very far side of the moon. It is a 71 km dia creator at 22°.4N and 163.1°W. The interesting feature of the western outer of Mach creator is the impact creator, Mitra (92km dia). It was named after the professor Sisir Kumar Mitra, who was an Indian physicist and Padma Bhushan recipient known for his wonderful work in the field of Ionosphere, and Radiophysics. The Korolev creator which is having several small creators of varying sizes.
The “Sommerfeld” is the largest impact crater located in the far of northern latitude of the moon surface It has a 169km dia creator at 65.2°N and 162.4°W It is having a very flat interior surrounded by the ring mountain and several smaller creators lie along the rim edge. The creator was named after Dr. Arnold Sommerfold who was a German physics. Northeast to this creato lie the Kirkwood creator named after the American astronomer Daniel Kirkwood, another well-formed impact crater which is approximately 68km far.
Finally, the real photos of the moon were viewed by the Chandrayaan-2 LI4 camera on 21st August 2019.
Second Lunar Bond Orbit Maneuver for the Chandrayaan-2 was performed successfully on this date beginning at 1250 hrs IST as they were planned by the scientist of ISRO. Using the onboard propulsion system. The duration of the maneuver was 1228 seconds. The orbit which was achieved was 118km × 4412km. All spacecraft parameters were normal. The next lunar bond orbit maneuver was scheduled on 28th August 2019.
Press Meet- Briefing by Dr. K Sivan, Chairman, ISRO.
Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) Maneuver was completed successfully on this date. The duration of the maneuver was 1738 second beginning from 0902 hrs IST. With this Chandrayaan-2 was successfully inserted into the Lunar orbit. The orbit which was achieved was 114km × 18072km. Following this, a series of orbit maneuvers will be performed on Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft to enable it to enter its final orbit passing over the lunar poles at the distance of 100 kilometers from the surface of the moon.
On this date, the lander separated from the orbiter and enters into the 100km × 30km orbits around the moon. And After that, it performed a series of complex braking maneuver has soft-landed on the south pole of the surface of the moon on September 7, 2019. The health of the spacecraft was being continuously monitored by the Mission Operation Complex( MOX) at the ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) in Bengaluru with support by Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) antennas at Byalalu. Near Bengaluru All the system of Chandrayaan-2 was healthy.
A Press Meet was held at 1100hrs on Tuesday. All media houses were invited to cover this report.
Chandrayaan-2 successfully enters Lunar Transfer Trajectory.